Climate Moderation through Magnetic Interaction of the Sun and Earth

The hypothesis that world climate is closely controlled by the concentration of gases such as CO2 and methane faces two insurmountable obstacles. 

The first is that the existence of vast quantities of carbonate reefs, coal, oil, and so on, implies input of tremendous quantities of carbon into our atmosphere at various times throughout geologic history. To do this in a random, unguided manner, without destroying life on earth, would be impossible, because of the quantities involved – if carbon dioxide is indeed the heating agent it is supposed to be. In short: to control world climate via atmospheric carbon would require constant carbon dioxide volume regulation, if the geologic record is to be taken seriously. Put it another way: believers in carbon dioxide climate change implicitly believe in something far more remarkable and mysterious than carbon dioxide driven climate change.

We might consider an example from the recent literature which illustrates the difficulty of a theory which relies on carbon to explain current global warming. ScienceDaily (Oct. 20, 2008) quoting work by geologists of the Geologic Survey of Norway:

“…the architecture of a sandy shore depends partly on whether wave activity or pack ice has influenced its formation. Beach ridges, which are generally distinct, very long, broad features running parallel to the shoreline, form when there is wave activity and occasional storms. This requires periodically open water…pack-ice ridges which form when drift ice is pressed onto the seashore, piling up shore sediments that lie in its path, have a completely different character … the beach ridges which we have dated to about 6000-7000 years ago where shaped by wave activity. They are located at the mouth of Independence Fjord in north Greenland, on an open, flat plain facing directly onto the Artic Ocean… Such beach formations require that the sea all the way to the North Pole was periodically ice free for a long time. This stands in sharp contrast to the present day situation.”

This work by the Norwegians provides telling evidence that the Arctic Ocean was all but ice free a mere six to seven thousand years ago. It then froze over. This is evidence of global warming 6 – 7 thousand years ago.

The reader will now be wondering why it is that the burning of fossil fuels is now being blamed for the recent retreat of Artic sea ice when the geologic evidence all but proves that the Arctic sea ice was severely impoverished six to seven thousand years ago at a time when all the coal and oil was still under the ground.

The second obstacle to greenhouse gas control of our climate lies in the undeniable fact that there is some relationship between solar activity and our climate. This fact is being reinforced by new discoveries. The actual mechanism involved in the sun’s control of our climate remains obscure at this time. One reason that people have concluded that greenhouse gases control our climate, is the measurement of a recent increase in world temperatures, whilst there was no commensurate increase in raw heat output of the sun. Conclusion? – increased carbon dioxide coming from fossil fuels is causing the heating.

This conclusion is so blinkered that it is laughable. Stars such as our sun are known to fluctuate in raw heat output. Such fluctuations, if not governed through some process of mitigation, theoretically would have long since destroyed all life on earth. As an extreme but telling example of this need for mitigation consider the faint early sun conundrum: our sun, by the laws and observations of physics, was two thirds-three quarters strength in its early life. Yet the early earth was not a frozen planet.

Fluctuations that must have happened in the sun’s past do not appear to have produced the dire consequences one would expect.

Any reasonable theory of climate change has to account for climate change on the one hand, without introducing aliens to regulate greenhouse gas levels, and on the other hand needs to account for climate constancy, without introducing aliens to regulate the amount of energy the earth absorbs from the sun.

Shall we scratch the aliens from this race?

Let us postulate the obvious. The earth-sun system was designed to self- regulate. Conditions on Earth govern the amount of energy the Earth accepts from the sun.

As mentioned previously, the evidence of solar influence of our weather is undeniable, although the mechanism is obscure. The sun-earth relationship is now being investigated through the use of spacecraft and the technicians are getting some surprises. ScienceDaily (Nov. 2, 2008) quoting scientists at the Plasma Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama:

“During the time it takes you to read this article, something will happen high overhead that until recently many scientists didn’t believe in. A magnetic portal will open, linking Earth to the sun 93 million miles away. Tonnes of high energy particles may flow through this opening before it closes again, around the time you reach the end of the page…. Ten years ago I was pretty sure they didn’t exist…

Researchers have long known that the Earth and sun must be connected. Earth’s magnetosphere is filled with particles from the sun. These particles follow magnetic field lines that can be traced from terra firma all the way back to the sun…. The connections are often brief, bursty and very dynamic…. On the day side of earth – the side closest to the sun – Earth’s magnetic field presses against the sun’s magnetic field. Approximately every eight minutes, the two fields briefly merge, forming a portal through which particles can flow. Four spacecraft and five probes have flown through and surrounded these cylinders….The cylindrical portals tend to form above Earth’s equator and then roll over Earth’s winter pole….They are important conduits of energy for Earth’s magnetosphere….

There are many unanswered questions. Why do the portals form every eight minutes? How do magnetic fields inside the cylinder twist and coil? We are doing some very heavy thinking about this…. Meanwhile, high above your head, a new portal is opening, connecting your planet to the sun.”

The implications are obvious. Even at this early stage of knowing almost nothing we may safely conclude that the earth-sun system has been designed with an energy connection. Assume this connection is governed by information feedback from Earth itself – perhaps by the composition, configuration, and concentration of various atmospheric gases, and/or by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The Earth’s atmosphere does not generate the magnetic field, although, as a planet, the Earth’s atmosphere potentially has unique magnetic properties – because it contains that exceptional and magnetically active element, oxygen. Does the temperature of gaseous substances in our atmosphere have any influence at all on the fine detail of our magnetic field, and thereby govern our energy absorption from the sun? Does the circulation of the oceans and atmosphere have any influence on our magnetic field?  

If the reader wishes to be startled about this planet and its environs and atmosphere, consider the following. ScienceDaily (Sep. 26, 2008) quoting a report in the September 26th issue of the journal Science:

“Earth’s north magnetic pole is shifting and weakening. Ancient lava flows are guiding a better understanding of what generates and controls the Earth’s magnetic field – and what may drive it to occasionally reverse direction…. A new study of volcanic rocks [through study of magnetic crystals combined with precise dating of the flows] shows that a second magnetic field source may help determine how and whether the main field reverses direction. This second field, which may originate in the shallow core just below the rocky mantle layer of the Earth, becomes important when the main north-south field weakens, as it does prior to reversing…. The scientists believe the shallow core field may play a role in determining whether the main field polarity flips while weakened or whether it recovers its strength without reversing…. Current evidence suggests we are now approaching one of these transitional states because the main magnetic field is relatively weak and rapidly decreasing…while the last polarity reversal occurred several hundred thousand years ago, the next might come within only a few thousand years. Right now, historic records show that the strength of the magnetic field is declining very rapidly. From a quick back-of-the-envelope prediction, in 1500 years the field will be as weak as it’s ever been and we could go into a state of polarity reversal.”

In theory we have a plausible cause of climate change and climate constancy. Magnetic fields have information capacity. The earth’s atmosphere, comprising, as it does, a broad spectrum of particles, ranging from everday gases in its lower regions through to entirely dismembered atomic particles in its uppermost regions, has the capability of modifying the information of magnetic force lines wihin it. Substances such as carbon dioxide, if they play a part, are a mere ‘side-kick.’

 

Attempt to Draw the Outline, Climate Moderation

Life has existed on Earth 4 thousand million years. Carbon dioxide content of the air must never have been substantially less than 0.0003 atmospheres, to sustain life. (Currently, 0.0004 atm..) Carbon gases may have been added to the atmosphere from space (dry ice and methane comets) and via volcanoes. Carbon is constantly being removed from the air by going into solution in the seas, to be buried in calcareous sediments, and by being buried as coal. (Total burial over 4 thousand million years was roughly equivalent to 12 atm. pure carbon dioxide.) Assume carbon gases do warm the planet. Assume they kept it from becoming too cold. Either full scale runaway global freezing or heating would have exterminated many species currently on Earth. What stopped the carbon gases from making it too hot? They must have been metered in extremely precisely, to sustain a liveable temperature, whilst not falling below the level required for plant life. Their concentration cannot have fallen below the minimum required for life during the existence of the planet. It is impossible to conceive of such precise metering by volcanoes and comets. A separate temperature correctional mechanism must have been built in. Assume the minimum carbon required for life also serves (through greenhouse effect) to stop total global freezing. Therefore there is no need to build in a low temperature stop – only a high temperature stop. Assume such a stop (whatever its fine details may be) is built into the system, and involves our magnetic field. Our magnetic field is in some sense climate driven. Assume a certain category of magnetic field activity, perhaps in some instances culminating in full reversal, invariably initiates a cooling effect. This effect for sake of argument could have to do with cloud formation or perhaps amelioration of some of the sun’s input. It need not be total or abrupt in its effect and might taper off over time. Alfven Waves, instruments of heat transfer sensitive to magnetic field change, need not be ignored when considering the possibilities.* The strength and duration of the effect could be influenced by the forcefulness of the reversal or attempted reversal event? — A simple process, perhaps varied in some measure as regards to its strength and duration, but always tending towards cooling. It is triggered at least in part through global warming altering atmospheric and oceanic circulation, which in turn trigger magnetic field changes, sometimes leading to reversal. Data are sketchy at best but we need not visualize reversal as a rigid, inflexible process. There are reasons to suspect that no two reversal events are precisely the same – just as no two weather fronts are precisely the same. A cause-effect link between climate, carbon and the geomagnetic field is inescapable. The two best documented periods of muted reversal (one appears in the column opposite) were associated with obvious climate change and carbon. The older was during the Carboniferous-Permian, the younger during the Cretaceous (latin, chalk). Massive coal seams are associated with the first; limestones with the second.

*Conceptually, Alfven waves possess similarities to sound, which propagates through substances such as air; and radio, which propagates through the seeming void of Space. They are slower than radio/light but under rare circumstances may approach the speed of light. They exist wherever a magnetic field permeates a ‘plasma’ of atomic fragments. The sun therefore features Alfven waves. In fact, much of the heat we receive from the sun is transmitted via magnetic action. The ‘plasma’ of the corona is closer to us than the sun, yet parts of it are much hotter than the surface of the sun. The Earth, on the receiving end of the sun’s output, also produces a magnetic field which passes through magnetically active substances (of our atmosphere). The sun’s and Earth’s fields continuously interact. The properties of our atmosphere are related in some ways to its temperature and composition. Therefore, carbon gases of our atmosphere potentially influence the magnetic interplay between sun and Earth. Oxygen itself possesses magnetic properties. These properties change according to the compound into which oxygen may be bonded.

Our (circulating) oceans are also influenced by temperature and dissolved substances – including carbon dioxide. They actively contribute to our overall magnetic field – what proportion, is unknown. In times past, their circulation may have been strongly modified through earth movements. This could explain the periods of subdued reversal activity?

If information feedback via atmospheric change is insufficient to the purpose, do the oceans act as a back-up to trigger magnetic field re-action to trip the thermostat? Could the effect be to reduce the solar radiation headed our way via magnetic transmission? The potential suitability of Alfven waves to this purpose lies in their propagation according to the characteristics of the magnetic field via which they are travelling.

Thus, magnetic field excursion/reversal here on Earth does not expose us to ruinous solar activity – on the contrary, it is part of a mechanism which ameliorates certain forms of solar activity in relation to the Earth. Events leading up to excursion/reversal need not be entirely pleasant(?) but, from the geologic record and the Scriptures, there is no reason to propose entirely ruinous global destruction as an adjunct of such events.

References:

Geerts, B. & Linacre, E. 2002, ‘Ice Cores, CO2 Concentration & Climate’ [Online]. Accessed 23 June 2007 from URL: http://www-das.uwyo.edu/~geerts/cwx/notes/chap01/icecore.html.

Helmholtz Centre Potsdam – GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences (2012, October 16). Ice age polarity reversal was global event: Extremely brief reversal of geomagnetic field, climate variability, and super volcano. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 20, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121016084936.htm.

A confirmed geomagnetic field reversal, only 40,000 years past, lasting only a few hundred years, associated with major climatic events.

Jacobs J.A., 1984, Reversals of the Earth’s Magnetic Field, Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol.

Krauskopf, K.B. 1967, Introduction to Geochemistry, McGraw-Hill/Kogakusha, Tokyo.

Lassen, K. 1998, ‘Long Term Variations in Solar Activity and their Apparent Effect on Earth’s Climate’ [Online]. Accessed 19 June 2007 from URL: www.tmgnow.com/repository/solar/lassen1.html. (This paper is available on this site, see Solar Activity and Climate)

Ryskin, G. 2009, ‘Secular variation of the Earth’s magnetic field: induced by the ocean flow?’ [Online]. New Journal of Physics, 11 (6). Accessed 7 August 2009 from URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/11/6/063015. Quote:

The results presented suggest that the observed secular variation of the Earth’s magnetic field owes its origin to the ocean flow. A numerical simulation using the induction equation of magnetohydrodynamics and the ocean flow field yields secular variation in rough agreement with observations. Data analysis exhibits striking temporal correlation between the intensity of the North Atlantic oceanic circulation and secular variation in Western Europe; this explains, in particular, the geomagnetic jerks, and the recently discovered correlation between secular variation and climate. Spatial correlation between ocean currents and secular variation is also strong…… …………………….. The current consensus is that the main field is generated by the hydromagnetic dynamo in the Earth’s fluid outer core. Secular variation has been taken as evidence of motion in the core since the time of Halley (1692). Halley thought that secular variation, the westward drift in particular, was caused by differential rotation of a magnetized solid core, separated from the ‘external parts of the Globe’ (also magnetized) by a ‘fluid medium’. Contemporary theoretical studies use the westward drift to estimate the characteristic large-scale velocity in the outer core, and to conclude that dynamo action is possible. If secular variation is caused by the ocean flow, the entire concept of the dynamo operating in the Earth’s core is called into question: there exists no other evidence of hydrodynamic flow in the core.

Taylor, S.R. 1998, Destiny or Chance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge U.K..

FURTHER READING

Columbia University (2013, October 15). Astronomers find clues to decades-long coronal heating mystery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131015191614.htm

QUOTE: New observations help to answer a 70-year-old solar physics conundrum about the unexplained extreme temperature of the Sun’s corona — known as the coronal heating problem……… found evidence that magnetic waves in a polar coronal hole contain enough energy to heat the corona and moreover that they also deposit most of their energy at sufficiently low heights for the heat to spread throughout the corona. The observations help to answer a 70-year-old solar physics conundrum about the unexplained extreme temperature of the Sun’s corona — known as the coronal heating problem. ………… Hahn and Savin’s recent observations show that magnetic waves are the answer. The advance opens up a realm of further questions; chief among them is what causes the waves to damp. ………………..

COMMENT: If ‘magnetic’, or, Alfven waves, do indeed transfer heat as suggested, what possibilities could follow? Alfven waves propagate courtesy of magnetic field lines and magnetic field lines are susceptible to various influences. Those influences could conceivably begin right here on earth.

Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel (GEOMAR) (2012, December 19). When the ice melts, the Earth spews fire. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121219133551.htm

QUOTE: Particular patterns started to appear. “There were periods when we found significantly more large eruptions than in others” says Kutterolf, the lead author of the Geology article. After comparing these patterns with the climate history, there was an amazing match. The periods of high volcanic activity followed fast, global temperature increases and associated rapid ice melting.

University of Utah (2012, September 23). Stratosphere targets deep sea to shape climate: North Atlantic ‘Achilles heel’ lets upper atmosphere affect the abyss. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2012, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/09/120923141212.htm

COMMENT: Does the stratosphere target the deep sea or does the deep sea target the stratosphere? Or do both combine to target climate moderation through magnetic field interaction? The oceans and the North Atlantic especially generate their own magnetic fields, because salt water is a conductor and sea currents are therefore conductors in motion, generating a magnetic field. The stratosphere is also constantly in motion. It is host to the ozone (O3) layer and oxygen has magnetic properties. Both the earth’s and sun’s magnetic fields interact in some way with the stratosphere. The mechanism by which earth’s climate is moderated is becoming less obscure.

The disastrous effects of sequestering too much carbon

Please consult the diagram of World Distribution of Coal by Geologic Age. Find Carboniferous. A word implying what it says – carbon sequestered in the ground in quantities exceeding that of all other ages. For the times succeeding the Carboniferous you will see the word, Permian. Some upwardly mobile classifier managed to get a subsidiary subdivision split off the original Carboniferous. But the Permian is really part of the original Carboniferous. And it is carboniferous. Most but not all Central Qld coal, probably not much Central Qld oil shale, but, yes, world class quantities of coal. Shown in the graph as Permian, which is effectively the Carboniferous. What do we see about world coal at the end of the Permian? It ceased being deposited in commercial quantities. For some time. Then, coal deposition revived. What else happened at end of Permian? The most severe mass extinction of all time. Combined with severe climatic trauma. This sequence of events is laid out along the road from Theodore to Taroom. There is an unconformity involved, and part of the sequence is missing, but the overall picture holds true. The same picture holds true over parts of Eastern Australia. At Theodore, they are mining Carboniferous (=Permian) coal. The ‘Bowen Basin’. Travelling south, we drive over darkly red-stained beds before entering Isla Gorge sandstone territory. These beds are coloured by iron oxides (suggestive of an excess of oxygen over carbon) and in the Theodore area are invariably the host of salty groundwater. The salt is leaching from salt minerals of buried salt pans. Fossils are rare. Proof of severe climatic trauma. Going farther south we drive up onto the Artesian Basin strata, Isla Gorge being cut into the basal aquifer. From Isla Gorge to Taroom the strata contain no commercial coal. By the time you get to Taroom, having driven over what amounts to thousands of meters of sediments, the world atmosphere had recovered enough carbon dioxide to facilitate coal deposition – the Taroom, then the Wandoan, Coal Measures.

Global distribution of major coal deposits by geological age. Some coals are known from the Devonian Period, but have minor economic significance. Source: Open Learn

You see proof of what happens when you sequester too much carbon. Life is imperilled. Climate possibly traumatizes. It happened before. More than once. Could it happen again? No, it is not going to happen again. Why? Because of the Industrial Revolution. Here we have it from the “bible” of geochemistry, our textbook at the University of Queensland: “A rough calculation of the carbon balance indicates that CO2 in air will fall to a level too low to support plant life within a few centuries, unless some other source of the gas is available.” Written in 1967. (K.B. Krauskopf, Introduction to Geochemistry.) That is how close we went to the trauma recorded in the rocks under our feet. The industrial revolution happened precisely when needed. From the geologic record, this input of atmospheric carbon will save, not hurt, life.

The second worst mass extinction of all geologic time is not so obvious. Much of inland Qld is indeed covered by various strata of the Great Artesian Basin. (Isla Gorge is cut into the base of the artesian basin). These strata overly various older formations, including, of course, the southerly extension of the Carbo-Permian Bowen Basin. Much of the Artesian Basin comprises Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary strata. There is some, limited, commercial coal, such as the Taroom and Wandoan Coal Measures, and other coal measures on the Downs. In Europe, the Cretaceous is exceptionally limestone rich – hence its name – Creta – ceous. Creta means chalk – a variety of limestone. Limestones are carbonates. (Bonded to CO3). So carbon sequestration was a feature not only of the older Bowen Basin and other older deposits, carbon sequestration was afoot in the times of the Artesian strata. If we deviate to Winton, an Artesian town, we meet the dinosaurs. Do we see dinosaurs today, other than in fossil deposits such as those at Winton? They became severely reduced if not extinct at the time of the second worst extinction, end of Cretaceous. When coal deposits also were (again) severely reduced. The strata recording this lesser extinction are not always so readily observable at the surface in Qld. All five mass extinctions of the geologic past can reasonably be attributed to starvation of atmospheric carbon.