A first book on Quantum Computation

There must be a superior, as yet undetected, signalling capability in Nature.

Everyday observations tell us it must be so.

The locusts suddenly decide to swarm: the birds circumnavigate the globe to return to a postage-stamp plot of earth: body rhythms mysteriously synchronize amongst people living at close quarters; dowsing discovers underground water and lost objects ……. and so on, ad infinitum. There are frontiers of science still to be conquered. We certainly don’t know everything yet!

Darwin even commented on something which, if provable, would necessitate hidden communication in the biosphere. He is reported as mooting the possibility of husbands and wives sometimes growing more physically similar over time. He may have been closer to something than he suspected!

The signalling system must be able to communicate with living cells. The information carrier almost has to be some sort of waveform. Gravity is sufficiently mysterious to qualify as a candidate, but have we yet exhausted all the possibilities of electro-magnetism? The communications medium has to be more sophisticated than straightforward radio-type transmissions, but for purposes of testing options, let us for current purposes propose an adjunct or an associate of electro-magnetism as the medium, leaving the deep question of gravity in reserve.

Briefly, let us acquaint ourselves with quantum mechanics.

Quantum mechanics are analogous to the foundations of a house, while conventional mechanics are the house overall, the house proper, the visible house. Quantum mechanics are a sub-branch of conventional mechanics, an aspect of conventional mechanics which take over as we get down to the foundational or atomic level. They have some application throughout the house — the visible universe — and they “cut in” fully at the foundational level where energy is matter and matter is energy and energy and matter become more and more indistinguishable. Many aspects of the quantum world are still a mystery. As we approach the ultimate foundation of matter we go through more and more sophisticated levels of the quantum realm, until we finally “freak out” at the boundary. Light, electricity, magnetism, radio, radio-active particles, split atoms — all these are intimately and intricately interwoven. They can only be fully described using their own peculiar mathematical language — the language of continuous vibrancy, the language of a frequency that is describing a substance as well as a frequency, the language of an exact amount or quantum of energy that is the material building-block of the atom. The language of vibrancy acted upon by information to become substance.

Surely this is one realm in which we could search for the information systems that communicate with the living realm? In the realm of today’s scientific advances in quantum technology? Search for them, for instance, in the realm of new technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, which utilizes quantum effects to look inside the human body?

The storage and transmission of information in the natural realm is always a ‘mechanical’ process. The hidden information systems of nature which communicate with atoms in living cells are mechanical systems. A computer is a machine. A conventional computer functions primarily through conventional mechanics, especially as an application of conventional electronics. A quantum computer functions through quantum mechanics, and is a usage of quantum electronics. At the level of the quantum of foundational energy, electricity and magnetism are “king”. An atom is basically organized electro-magnetic energy. Intelligence storage and transmission systems at this level are electro-magnetic. In simplistic terms, magnetism can “talk”.

Surely it is in this realm that we could search for hidden signalling systems?

And it is only logical to assume that if a given communications system can impart some sort of information to living cells, then it may be able to impart information to D.N.A. within cells. So, logical step: what sort of machine could possibly communicate information to D.N.A.?

Buchanan, 2000: an article in New Scientist titled “Life Force”. Quote: “Your body is teeming with quantum computers ….. so says Patel, a physicist …. to many biologists this seems like a bad joke … even physicists have reason to be scornful …. For 15 years, they have [unsuccessfully] struggled to build a quantum computer, a device that could exploit the peculiar properties of the quantum world to do calculations with a style and speed to put any ordinary computer to shame. …. Biologists have known for half a century … that D.N.A. encodes biologic recipes [by employing a code based on] four [possibilities]. So there is a fundamental difference between the four-letter code of D.N.A. and the strings of 0’s and 1’s in any [existing] computer, where there are only two alternatives. …. Might there be something mysteriously efficient about the number 4? Patel thinks there is. …. In an ordinary computer, a transistor can be either on or off …. either 1 or 0 ….. an alternative is to exploit quantum physics, and to store information using single quantum particles such as electrons. ….. The quantum world allows other possibilities …. a string of electrons can hold not just one distinct string of 0’s and 1’s, but every conceivable string at once. ….. A computer handling information in quantum fashion could do parallel processing on an outrageous scale. ….. Physicist L. Grover [an associate of Patel] gives an exact formula for the number of quantum attempts needed to find one specific element in a database of 4 …. just one ….. ‘ The quantum search scheme he [Patel] shows is very nice’, says Grover, ‘although a few of the details are somewhat speculative.’ …… The greatest obstacle to building a quantum computer is …. external disturbances ….. almost any interference will destroy the fragile quantum dynamics …… Patel points out that the configuration of electrons around atomic nuclei helps to shield some nuclear properties from their environment. Nuclear spins remain in quantum superpositions for several seconds. He suggests something similar happens in biochemistry. ……. The idea may not be so ludicrous: quantum physics is not as foreign to biology as one might think. In photosynthesis, biology exploits quantum possibilities at a scale above that of single molecules. When a photon is absorbed by a photosynthesizing cell, its energy excites an electron into a delocalised state spread out over tens of molecules……………………………………………………………………………………………”

According to the Tree of Life theory, all physical life evidenced through a process analogous to the functioning of a natural tree — hence a tree-like pattern of species revelation. The tree of life had a physical aspect. The tree of life in its physical aspect was like a quantum-category computer. A tree is a ‘quantum computer’. In fact, a tree seems to display two aspects of this super-computation; the food-provision of photosynthesis which we shall call a male aspect; and the bringing forth of new life, as pre-programmed leaves, etc. which we shall call the female aspect. The information transmission and storage processes that cause already-existing new life to suddenly appear on a tree are not conventional electronic processes. We shall find no electrical wiring or microchips within a tree!

We have hypothesised that the process that led to the evidencing of the species was of a quantum-category. Since information impartation is a ‘mechanical’ process, then there must have been a mechanical process involved in the actuation of the species on the earth. Where and what was this ‘machine’?

Complex life exploded at the beginning of the Cambrian Period, hard on the heels of some globally significant event. This event was partly mechanical in nature because many rock formations at this point in geologic history display a marked unconformity. Moon capture explains this geology. (Heywood, 2000) Can it also explain the biology? If the moon was somehow associated with the explosion of life, is there any evidence of a link between the moon and life? And is this link possibly in the quantum communication category? Many reproductive cycles synchronise or near-synchronise with the lunar calendar and reproduction must have profound links with evidencing of new species. Is the solar system the required ‘machine’, a quantum-category computer? If so, then gravity is directly or indirectly implicated in quantum-class communications capability because the only mechanical effect the moon is known to have on the earth is gravitational. If the involvement of gravity is indirect — the option pursued here — then it must be implicated in generation of a secondary effect — perhaps a quantum-category electro-magnetic effect. Planetary magnetism is a candidate.

What happens if we conjecture the possibility of some hitherto unsuspected factor coming into play at extreme pressures such as exist inside planets? Something like superconductivity which is “a phenomenon displayed by certain conductors that demonstrate no resistance to flow of an electric current. Superconductivity is manifested only below a certain critical temperature and a critical magnetic field. Ultralow-temperature operation places a severe constraint on the overall efficiency of a superconducting machine. ……… The basic physics of superconductivity was not realized until 1957, when [three American physicists] advanced the theory [which] describes superconductivity as a quantum phenomenon ….. . In 1962 … [a]British physicist …. examined the quantum nature of superconductivity and proposed the existence of oscillations in the electric current flowing through two superconductors separated by a thin insulating layer in a magnetic or electric field. The effect … was confirmed by experiments. ………. Because of their lack of resistance, superconductors have been used to make electromagnets that generate large magnetic fields with no energy loss…… .”.(Chu 1996, in Encarta Encyclopedia.)

Is there the slightest shred of hard evidence to suggest superconduction at extreme pressures? Is this a question worthy of pursuit? And can superconduction, or some related, as yet mysterious, quantum process, explain planetary magnetism?

Certainly it is not easy to account for planetary magnetism using conventional electronics. A quick overview of the planets opens up a pandora’s box of perplexities.

1). Internal gravitational flexing or some correlative of it may well be an engine of planetary magnetism. According to existing knowledge, the only planets currently lacking intrinsic fields are the two planets without sizeable orbiting partners — Mars and Venus. (This classifies the sun as Mercury’s orbiting partner, and excludes Pluto from the planet-family. Mars does show evidence of past active magnetism, and does have two miniscule satellites.)

2). Magnetism can exist in bodies radically different in composition to stone-metal planets such as Earth. It seems likely that an iron rich core is not essential, although some sort of conducting material is hypothesized in all cases. Even some moons currently display magnetism. Our own moon perhaps was once magnetic — intrinsically magnetic — and if it has an iron core

, it is so small, the lunar seismometers have difficulty detecting it.

3). Electromagnetic interaction between Jupiter and one of its moons — Io — is such as to give a clear difference in the resulting radio signal depending on Io’s position in orbit. In other words, a technician on earth can deduce the position of a moon in its orbit by studying the signals coming from that moon-planet system. Coral experts can tell the position of our moon in its orbit if they see the corals spawning. Suggestive?

Under the assumption that the creation of complex life followed hard on the heels of moon arrival, there is a mechanism to explain the intense breaking forth of the new life. Not only could the extra gravitational flexing have given the earth’s magnetic field a fillip; electro-magnetic conditions immediately following introduction could have been temporarily exceptionally vigorous. If moon introduction was facilitated through propelling and correctional impacts by large comet-like ice-bodies, then the gravitational environment of the earth and moon at that time was exceptional. Was there at that time a solar system “ice age” during which numerous comet-like bodies coursed among the planets? Was this when Saturn was adorned with her icy halo? The timing could fit. We can go further. To the surprise of scientists at the time, it was discovered from the moon rocks that that stately ship of the night sky may have once possessed a magnetic field. (One reason for conjecturing a metallic core within our moon is to account for the possibility of a once-active internal electro-magnet.) Assume for the moment that this internal magnetism was generated as an effect of internal stress, heating, and possibly spin, associated with the introduction event. Then at the time of the advent of complex life, we have not only a conjectured solar-system ice-age, but the possibility of two interacting magnetic fields reminiscent of the Jupiter-Io signal generator. This provides the raw materials for more sophisticated super-computation at that time — ca. 550million years past.

4). No existing conventional electronic theory fully accounts for the observed magnetic properties of the planets.

As those who pay the power bills know, effort is required to produce electric current.

A conventional electrical circuit resists the current flow all the way. Hence, powerhouses.

If a conventional electrical circuit exists within a planet, the first requirement is a powerhouse. Assuming the existence of powerhouses — a variety of mechanical and chemical generating systems have been proposed for planets — we then encounter another problem. From the evidence available, it appears the orientation and strength of the current flows can change in such a way as to reverse the total effect. It is probably not misrepresenting existing evidence to say that the overall direction of flow reverses “at the drop of a hat”. Jupiter and Saturn currently display reverse polarity to Earth, and palaeomagnetic evidence from the earth is difficult to interpret as anything other than proof of polarity changes. Despite formidable obstacles, a hazy but intelligible picture of the magnetic history of our planet is being pieced together- eg., see Fortes, A.D., 1997, especially his comments on Earth’s field.

Thus there are at least three features common to planetary magnetism, which are difficult to explain using conventional electronics: all planets with sizeable orbiting partners seem prone to develop an internal electro-magnet; the direction of current flow which presumably sets up the magnet cannot be predicted from the planets’ mechanical setting; and the current flow reverses without any great change in the planets’ mechanical setting. Thus, all planets except Mars and Venus currently are intrinsically magnetic; even our relatively puny moon may once have been a self-sustaining magnet. For no apparent reason, Jupiter and Saturn have reverse polarity to Earth; and palaeomagnetic evidence seems to demand regular switches in Earth’s magnetic polarity in the past.

As we know, driving a current in a conventional electric circuit requires effort. Stopping and re-starting in the opposite direction requires more than mere effort — it requires peculiar circuitry. Can you envisage what must happen inside a planet to permit such a changeover? Unless the planet itself turns over to trigger the change — but then, where is there evidence or reason for planets to regularly change their orientation? And if we start somersaulting or stopping and starting, how do we retain seasonal and day-night regularity? Lock in at a set angle or speed utilizing the sun’s magnetic flux?

Mystery of mysteries. There has to be a unifying factor.

The best option to the strained mind may perhaps be superconductivity or some similar, unknown phenomenon?

Current will flow around a circle of superconducting material in perpetuity without need for an ongoing driving force.

A superconductor can be “doused” and “resuscitated” by altering temperature or the magnetic environment. It can be stopped and restarted. If we were to assume a phenomenon similar to superconductivity governed by extremes of pressure as well as magnetic environment, then what possibilities for the interior of planets?

Superconduction is a quantum effect. “In 1962 the British physicist B. Josephson examined the quantum nature of superconductivity and proposed the existence of oscillations in the electric current flowing through two superconductors separated by a thin insulating layer in a magnetic field. This was subsequently confirmed by experiment ….. “. (Chu, 1996, in Encarta Encyclopedia)

The tree of life utilized a super-sophisticated quantum-type computer built into the solar system.

A natural tree is in some senses a quantum computer.

The sun, the male in a figure, provides the food for a tree through a quantum process — photosynthesis. The breaking forth of new life in a tree — the female or moon analogy — is likely to be another quantum information technology process.

The moon is analogous to the mother; the sun is analogous to the fatherThe earth itself must also be intricately involved in information storage: thus, all these are in a sense responsible for bringing forth the various (already existing, pre-programmed) life-forms. The solar system and especially the sun-earth-moon system, with intricate day-night-day-night tidal, gravitational, and magnetic interaction, coupled with atmospheric, oceanic, and earth-core circulation, is an information broadcasting and receiving mechanism.

If we possessed a working model of the earth-sun-moon system, and one of a tree — which will doubtless be found to be analogous — we would be in a stronger position. The incoherence that plagues the efforts of quantum-computer builders could well be a weighty matter. If the Bible says what it appears to say, then up until the time when Adam was barred from the tree of life, there were times or there were opportunities when the incoherence became coherence.

The quantum computer performed.

Can that (presumably) quantum-class communications capability be simulated, revisited, or imitated in some way? Is the tree of life for the healing of the nations (Rev.22:2) in some limited way, even now?

And, in passing: if quantum-type computation implicating the solar system is assumed as an aspect of nature, the biblical account of origins and other hitherto mysterious parts of the Bible suddenly become hard fact. We have total correlation with the fossil record. The above deductions are a necessary outcome of taking that Book as the first document of quantum computation. Terms employed in the first chapters of Genesis and elsewhere are “to the manor born” in relation to this branch of science.

The above article has been adapted from the recently published book, ‘Gene-science: a Quantum Leap’ published by Daylight Publications, Theodore, Queensland, Australia. The author has drawn his inspiration from two sources: a scientific background as a geologist and the Authorized Version of the Bible.

Further Reading

Jacobs J.A., 1984, Reversals of the Earth’s Magnetic Field, Adam Hilger Ltd., Bristol.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (2006, July 21). Road To AC Voltage Standard Leads To Important Junction. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/07/060721183520.htm

Purdue University (2011, July 27). New material lets electrons ‘dance’ and form new state. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110727141327.htm.
“These exotic states are beyond the standard models of solid-state physics and are at the frontier of what we understand and what we don’t understand,” said Manfra, who also is an associate professor of both materials engineering and electrical and computer engineering.” They don’t exist in most standard materials, but only under special conditions in ultrapure gallium arsenide semiconductor crystals. Quantum computing is based on using the quantum mechanical behavior of electrons to create a new way to store and process information that is faster, more powerful and more efficient than classical computing. It taps into the ability of these particles to be put into a correlated state in which a change applied to one particle is instantly reflected by the others.”

Saxena S.S., Littlewood P.B., 2001, Superconductivity: Iron Cast in Exotic Role, Nature, Vol. 412, pp. 290-291.

Sciencedaily, 2007, New Telomere Discovery Could Help Explain Why Cancer Cells Never Stop Dividing [Online]. Available: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071004143131.htm [Accessed 27 Oct. 2007]. Exciting research outcomes on the link between information, DNA and cancer.

Spacedaily, 2004, A Bird’s Eye View of Magnetic Earth [Online]. Available: http://www.spacedaily.com/news/earth-magnetic-04b.html. “The importance of this finding extends beyond this field of research, because it suggests that interactions much weaker than any thought to be possible in living systems are playing an important role in the behavior of these animals.”

Superconductors.org, 2003, ‘Atypical Superconductors and the Future’, Available from: http://superconductors.org/atypical.htm [Accessed 22 Nov. 2003]. The associated page, ‘Ultraconductors – A Primer’, by Kevin Shambrook, available from http://superconductors.org/ultra.htm is also recommended.

Tree of Life Project Website, University of Arizona, [Accessed 7 July, 2003].

University of California – Santa Barbara (2011, June 9). Physicists apply Einstein’s general theory of relativity to superconducting circuits. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110610094513.htm

University of New South Wales (2011, June 7). Scientists use super microscope to pinpoint body’s immunity ‘switch’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110605132429.htm.

University of Rochester Medical Center (2011, June 16). Scientists override errant form of genetic signaling for first time: Changing genetic ‘red light’ to green holds promise for treating disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110615132019.htm.

University of Toronto Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering (2011, July 11). Researchers build an antenna for light. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 6, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110710132830.htm. “Traditional antennas increase the amount of an electromagnetic wave — such as a radio frequency — that is absorbed, and then funnel that energy to a circuit. The U of T nanoantennas instead increased the amount of light that is absorbed and funneled it to a single site within their molecule-like complexes. This concept is already used in nature in light harvesting antennas, constituents of leaves that make photosynthesis efficient. “Like the antennas in radios and mobile phones, our complexes captured dispersed energy and concentrated it to a desired location. Like the light harvesting antennas in the leaves of a tree, our complexes do so using wavelengths found in sunlight,” explained Sargent.”

Buchanan, M., 2000. New Scientist, 15th April, p.21-24.

Chu, C.W., 1996, in Encarta Encyclopedia 96. Funk&Wagnalls.

Fortes, A.D., 1997, Magnetic Fields of the Planets, web address [Accessed 7 July, 2003]: http://www.es.ucl.ac.uk/research/planetaryweb/undergraduate/dom/magrev/magtoc.htm

Heywood, P.B., 2000. The Tree of Life and the Origin of the Species, Daylight Pl’ns, Theodore, Qld., Australia.

First published 2000. Includes subsequent minor updates.